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Development Log for Game (In progress)
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Old Dec 10, 2021, 02:24 PM Local time: Dec 10, 2021, 02:24 PM #1 of 13
Development Log for Game (In progress)

Working on a cell phone (Android) game similar to Simcity with a Gameboy retro style. Quiet here these days, yet enjoyed Gamingforce several years ago, so figured I'd use this to keep a devlog on a current project.

Started work several months ago, and relatively happy with the progress. Now have a game that is semi-playable and with cities that develop, change buildings, recruit citizens, and generate a job market. An example of a city in progress is shown below.


Display is also rotatable and have developed my own menu system (quite a challenge, especially with Opengl). Allows selection, drag and drop, and menu elements that sort themselves. Another example of the same city shown below on emulated phone with building menu for cultural buildings open on the left, the informational for the city open on the right, and sortable status display for the towns needs cycling on the bottom.


Recently finished a first pass at supplies and resources for cities with informational displays that track and view the progress of those resources. Currently following: "Electricity", "Water", "Fire", "Police", "Hospital", "School", "Religion", and "Food" as resources or coverage needs in addition to the basic population and jobs. Also track statistics like the order that buildings were created. Two examples of the information displays shown below: Build Order, and Electricity Supply state.



Current task is developing "layers" for the city region so that I can follow ideas like subterranean developments, subway systems, and water supply lines. Mostly a work in progress for subterranean. Lots of issues related to pathing, correctly updating the buildings, selecting the correct textures or icons, and properly adding the developments to the city on the surface layer. (Traffic flow across layers is rather challenging) Example of subterranean work show below.


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Made some nice progress on subterranean and surface interactions today after the initial post. Attempting to allow surface roads / rails / electricity to path and be placed independently relative to subterranean roads / rails / water lines. Included below is a side by side image of surface / subterranean interaction. Also have examples of roads / rails / water passing over each other / crossing and how the three types change when they go through water areas. Also show example of Residential and Commercial types that can be built on water areas. Notably, still having issues with building upgrades in the wrong layers (although may be a fairly easy fix). Finally, also show how some objects like wells and tunnels pass through layers, yet can be connected to on both layers.


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Old Dec 10, 2021, 05:39 PM Local time: Dec 10, 2021, 05:39 PM #2 of 13
Further update for today. Managed to resolve the issues with underground and underwater buildings and now appear to have functional buildings that change form correctly and seem to respect electrical and water connections to those areas. Still have a few issues with pathing and whether resource support is properly provided to those areas, yet the buildings themselves appear to be responding to inputs correctly and changing as citizens inhabit them. Side-by-side images below.


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Old Dec 11, 2021, 06:44 PM Local time: Dec 11, 2021, 06:44 PM #3 of 13
Spending a lot of today dealing with supply issues (primarily for food and education). When I try to be even slightly realistic with the number of farms, the size of farms, and the requirements for educators at schools, it can very rapidly run into issues, even with towns of moderate size (25000-50000). Part of the issue tends to be with rapid population growth very quickly outstripping the ability of the supplies for the town. People arrive in town and then very quickly overwhelm the schoolteacher capacity. Shown below is an example.

Partial fix might be allowing faster hiring rates for some of the supply style jobs. Also need to modify the school system to only count children in the population rather than the entire population. Food on the other hand is simply an issue. Huge water requirements and enormous amounts of land area if a town is going to provide food based on the surrounding area.

Also fixed a couple of issues with buildings upgrading properly, as many buildings were getting stuck at a certain development phase due to requirements for the next stage not being evaluated properly.

Next up is probably revamping the supply displays so that I can see the areas that are requiring the most supplies of a certain type, and then working on the water supply system so that piping correctly identifies areas that represent a connection. In many cases, I'm currently needing to dig wells near each major development just to guarantee supply availability. (Also visible in the attached screenshot)

After that, need to begin having more specialized purposes for many of the building types. Ideas like culture, research, religion, happiness, entertainment "kind of" exist, yet have very limited implementation. Eventually, I'd like to have something like the Civilization games, where over time, culture and research give you access to different town options, change the style of the town, and lead to different growth patterns. Having a well educated population leading to preferences for different kinds of jobs, rates of entrepreneurialship, ect...

Also need to work on the building changes and upgrades. Currently it "feels" lacking in realism. Place a residential and if the job market is high it may rocket to a skyscraper in only a few update cycles. "Might" be realistic in boom town areas, yet there's very little suburbia before skyscrapers are everywhere. (Also shown above, most of those are one of the densest Residential available) Probably need a preference for private space or lower density relative to the pull of jobs, yet challenging to implement. Maybe rating Residences based on density relative to the local job "pull". Is job market attractive enough to warrant living in a densified highrise?

This thing is sticky, and I don't like it. I don't appreciate it.

Last edited by Araes; Dec 11, 2021 at 06:52 PM.
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Old Dec 12, 2021, 08:12 PM Local time: Dec 12, 2021, 08:12 PM #4 of 13
Today was a lot of work dealing with construction layers and how buildings interact across construction layers (surface vs subterranean). Been having issues with buildings incorrectly detecting or not detecting neighbors in their vicinity, so went back and evaluated how the actual neighborhood construction was happening.

At the same time, also implemented smooth gradient displays for the supply usages so that its clearer which buildings are taking the most of various supplies. Still playing around with the specific numbers to use to emphasize supply sources vs buildings meeting their needs vs buildings lacking supplies, yet the initial results seem promising. Shown below is a display for School (education) coverage in a small town example. The school is the white building on the far right, while large usage regions are slightly darker gradients, and areas like Commercial districts, with little to no requirements are dark grey. Areas with no requirement are the dark grey speckles on black (such as electrical lines)


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Old Dec 13, 2021, 08:05 PM Local time: Dec 13, 2021, 08:05 PM #5 of 13
Work on this update was focused on tracking down issues with electricity and water pipe routing in both surface and subterranean environments, and then making sure that buildings were properly registering connections to those resource types. Shown below is a side by side example of surface and subterranean construction with electricity supply as the info display.

Buildings are visible in both layers, yet do not obstruct construction, as an industrial area is built directly on top of a residential subterranean area. Yet both layers properly register the electrical connections to those buildings, even though electrical wires are built only on the surface.

Similarly, on the surface, an obvious empty area is shown, where the subterranean residence exists, yet connections pass through the area, properly connecting to the commercial areas further away.

Water lines were also tested simultaneously, and have another example of roads that exist both above and below the surface, yet don't interfere with each other. The black lines on the water are a surface, water railway.

Kind of a nonsense city building example, yet useful for testing purposes of strange building ideas, or ways people might purposely try to break some of the functions.


Next up, I'm thinking I'm probably going to try and tackle some of the special buildings. How does a military base interact with a university nearby? How do both interact with nearby residences? How does a zoo interact with a museum, or a shine interact with a nearby police station? Do they only affect nearby buildings, or do they apply city wide or large area affects? Do they update regularly or determine their purpose at the time of placement?

I was speaking idiomatically.

Last edited by Araes; Dec 13, 2021 at 08:08 PM.
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Old Dec 14, 2021, 07:57 PM Local time: Dec 14, 2021, 07:57 PM #6 of 13
Today's work has been more theoretical rather than coding. Trying to figure out how the specialist buildings are going to interact with each other and with the surrounding environment without specifying an enormous list of pre-listed interactions. (Currently have about 60 building types, with each having a pre-listed interaction with each other building would be ~3700 interactions I'd have to code)

Instead, my initial thoughts are to use a method somewhat like Alpha Centauri's social policies. A list of different social effects that each building radiates to their surrounding environment that then apply modifiers to those building's performance.

Current list I'm looking at is (with advantages / disadvantages of each)
Economy // Economic output / success of citizens / negatives for pollution output / ecology / crime / health
Efficiency // Cost of social services / resistance to providing social services
Support // Amount of services needed (social support) / resistance to welfare
Culture // Tourism / desirability / social polices / land prices / immigrants
Morale // Happiness / town pride / stagnation / xenophobia
Social Order // Crime / lawfulness / riots / lawyers / court system / jail population (cost) / frozen society / no chaos
Spirituality // Mental health / stress / sense / awareness / xenophobia / theocracy / ghosts / spectres
Growth // Population / job growth / possible food / plant growth / family issues / uncontrolled breeding
Health // Disease and lifespan / healthcare costs / ever increasing healthcare demands
Ecology // Pollution output, severe weather, natural disasters / happiness issues with pollution control
Industry // Industrial or production output / health and pollution issues
Research // Social policies, education, literacy / elitism / lack of entry level jobs / ivory tower syndrome

Math wise, the thought is to apply a logarithmic progression to the benefits to help limit enormous number effects. A +1 or +2 might be 10-20% change, yet +8 would only be a 40% change, and +16 might be 50%. Numbers are still the subject of modifying, yet that's the basic idea. Similarly, negatives would apply a negative modifier (to advantages and disadvantages of a category)

Taking a University as an example, its effect areas might be:
Culture +
SocialOrder -
Research ++

The idea with the advantages and disadvantages is to make it so that there is not a "correct" choice in terms of social policies, simply choices. A classic example might be social order vs chaos. Social order is often desirable, as a reduction in crime, lawfulness, and riots results. However, too much and it can lead to stagnation, drone like behavior, and lack of creative output - machine like compliance.

Morale or happiness tends to also fall into this category, as happiness is often viewed as desirable, yet too much and it can fall into nationalism and xenophobia.

Continuing the above University example Culture might lead to tourism and desirability, yet cause issues with immigrants and land prices. Research might lead to education and better paying jobs, yet result in elitism and ivory tower issues.

The thought is that buildings will then apply these affects to their surrounding area, so if you built a University and a Stadium, and they both have a reduction in Social Order, then you'd have creative output, yet probably also deal with crime and hooliganism.

One of the main challenges now is figuring out what reasonable numbers for buildings are and what an acceptable average amount is. In addition, as buildings "level up" what kinds of changes happen. Initial thoughts are that buildings expand their territorial influence by "buying" nearby territory to add to their zone and that they also slowing increase their statistical influence on those regions.

The statistical influence change is currently one of the most challenging issues, as I'd like to have two Universities built in different areas develop differently. Building near a Stadium, its one kind of University, build near a Military Base, its a different kind of University. Possibly allow something like RPGs where the building preferential spends its advancement points based on its prior development and the influence of its nearby environment. Build near lots of parks, and a University might move toward Ecology, build near a Stock Market and it might move toward Economy.

A few like Shrines, I'm also thinking of making very adaptable, or heavily influenced by what they're built near. Build a Shrine near a forest, and it might be a very Ecology based Shrine, build a Shrine near a Police station and it might be a very Social Order based Shrine.

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Old Dec 19, 2021, 02:45 PM Local time: Dec 19, 2021, 02:45 PM #7 of 13
Spent the last few days looking at buildings and possible interactions with nearby buildings or with the entire city those buildings inhabit. Turned into a rather complicated issue (enormous rabbit hole of complexity), so now just trying to figure out a reasonable approximation that will work for a game.

As an example, attempting to find out whether certain building types or structures have effects on population growth rates or on the health of the population.

Below is a comparison of US fertility rates over the last decade compared with humans interest in "eco friendly" ideas. Appears there is some relationship between the two concepts, yet its difficult to determine whether its correlation or causation related. Original idea was that environmental cleanliness or environmental health might have an effect on population growth rates.


A second example is the relationship between median household income and the health of the population. Rather strongly correlated, and seems there may be some causation style effect. More money allowing for more capability to purchase "healthy" styles of living or products and an increased interest in those activities because of the desire to preserve the wealth someone has.


Another interesting bit has been looking at how buildings are distributed throughout cities and the effect is has on those cities.

For a comparison, here are images of Los Angeles and Houston showing how Amphitheaters and Theaters are arranged in those cities. Los Angeles has a widely distributed pattern of Amphitheaters almost everywhere, with a fairly even spacing between the Amphitheaters, and the Performing Arts Theaters are also similarly distributed. This may have an effect on how Los Angeles seems to have a larger "voice" than many similarly sized towns in America.

Houston on the other hand collects most of the Amphitheaters and Performing Arts Theaters into a small subset of regions. The idea of "Theater" is more of a tourism or entertainment "destination" within the city. I'm interested in Theater so I'll go to a certain area. In Los Angeles its more of the "fabric" of the town itself.


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Old Dec 19, 2021, 07:53 PM Local time: Dec 19, 2021, 07:53 PM #8 of 13
Further looking at the building idea today and how buildings might apply their effects, investigated using simplified waves as a method for spreading out the building bonuses or negatives over an area. Below are four examples of how those types of application patterns might look.

In the upper left, a single source application pattern that oscillates between positive and negative bonuses and decays down to zero bonus at some distance.

In the upper right, a dipole (or two source) application pattern where the two sources are constructively adding so they produce a directional effect and a null zone in the centerline.

In the lower left, a dipole pattern where the two sources are negating each other (or opposite) so they negate in the center, yet otherwise produce oscillating, opposite effects similar to the single source, just with different +/- sign.

In the lower right, a similar dipole pattern, except where the magnitudes are different, so it produces a slanted pattern, or unequal application on either side of the central building area.



Each building would then contribute these kinds of patterns to the overall town, adding each effect over an area, and then summing the effects. In some cases I'm thinking that certain types like parks might act as a unified group so that they apply an effect radiating away from their edges with a magnitude based on the combined contributions, while other buildings might only operate individually, and then some buildings might change their patterns or bonuses depending on the region they're placed in.

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Old Dec 26, 2021, 01:57 AM Local time: Dec 26, 2021, 01:57 AM #9 of 13
Last couple of days been completing the background work necessary to support special buildings influencing the standard Simcity style zoning areas (residential, commercial, industrial) and the governmental zones that I've added.

One personally interesting idea I ran into recently was the effect of Seaports and Airports on the surrounding areas of the towns and how they're often viewed in Simcity. Usually, they tend have a purely Industrial type of function, and get demanded mostly when Industrial areas reach a certain capacity. However, in looking at maps it seems like there are actually distinct varieties that exist based on either the region that those buildings are built near or the character of the town itself.

As an example, San Diego actually appears to possess multiple types, as shown below:


Per the labels, there is a residential, commercial, industrial, and government (military) port that each display a different character, form, attached ships, and surrounding buildings. In the residential example, the nearby yacht port appears to slightly elevate the land value or wealth of the nearby houses. In the commercial port, because of cruise ship docking the skyscrapers near the port appear to have been developed to a greater extent than some of the nearby town. In the industrial port, the area is mostly warehouses and cargo loading machinery. Finally, in the military port, there are attached structures for various military groups.

The rest of the work has been mostly focused on trying to define how far each of the buildings effects extend into their surrounding areas, how those buildings actually affect the areas per the characteristics I previously noted, and how those characteristics will change over time based on interactions with the town or the surrounding buildings. A few like Universities and Military Bases are especially challenging because they tend to grow like amoebas through the community, slowly buying up or possessing land and then converting those areas into part of the larger institution. The "feel" of those also tends to be heavily based on what gets added. A Military Base with a Seaport and and Airport might be a Joint Forces Base, while a base primarily with commercial and government offices might instead be a Cyber Command or an Infantry division.

Others that have been challenging is trying to detect how buildings actually affect ideas in their local area. How to detect that a building is actually affecting the Ecology of the area or that a building is affecting the Spirituality of the residents. One method has involved ideas like looking at maps similar to the below map of faith in America and then attempting to correlate regions based on building type concentrations. Trying to find out why an island of spirituality might appear in Los Angeles, yet not appear in areas like Oregon or Washington. Is it related to the concentration or distribution of Churches, Monasteries, Cathedrals, or other religious structures?


Another that I've also found personally interesting has been the effect of some less used structures in America (or at least I perceive them as being less used), namely Monasteries and Circuses. Circuses for example, have actually been quite successful in areas like Russia, yet seem to show very little acceptance in America, or even most of Europe. In Europe, where they exist, they're often simply a field that occasionally has a Circus spring up for a limited time, like a traveling carnival. In Russia, however, there are several well established Circuses with permanent locations (like shown below) that appear to have significantly affected structures like the Universities that surround them.


Monasteries are strange from my perspective because while they often want to isolate themselves and tend to exist far away from established towns, when they do exist near a community, often they actually spawn increased development near the monastery and buildings of either greater density or larger types. An example from Switzerland is shown below:


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Old Dec 28, 2021, 10:12 PM Local time: Dec 28, 2021, 10:12 PM #10 of 13
Finished a first attempt at adding building social effects and influence to their surrounding areas. Using the wave style example I discussed earlier and then adding in viewing displays for each of the various types of social effects. Below is shown an example of three of the social effects (industry, spirituality, and growth) relative to a normal view of the city.


In the upper part of the image a nuclear reactor can be seen to have a wide ranging effect on the city in both the industry and spirituality views, rippling outward as a ( positive industry, negative spirituality ) wave nearby and then a shallower ( negative industry, positive spirituality ) region at a larger radius.

Where it overlaps with other buildings the effects either adds or cancels out depending on the amplitude and phase of the interaction. This is especially clear in the last (growth) image where several buildings with positive effects can be seen to be overlapping in the central portion of the view producing a greater effect between them. In the central spirituality image, the lower portion of the reactors wave is also entirely cancelled out by the effect of the nearby church.

Most numbers represent initial guesses at magnitudes, simply to have numbers to test for interactions. Yet, the next step is to begin adjusting numerical values for each of the 12 effects. Afterward, some time also needs to be spent speeding up the calculation and rendering of the effects, as building placement is noticeably slowed. Third, I will need figure out how the buildings actually advance these properties as the buildings themselves change or develop.

I have wave amplitude, bias, and wavelength as possible alternatives over all of the 12 social effects. If a church in a local area becomes popular then does the church radiate a larger amplitude wave, increase the average effect it has over the area, or extend the range of its effect?

Finally, I will need to look at how these effects actually change the properties of the buildings around them. Previously I posted a list of the effects and what I envision them influencing in the city. However, actual numbers for each building still need to be determined. Some like growth and the rate of either Births / Deaths or Job Placement are relatively straightforward, yet others like Industry may have more complicated interactions.

A few like Efficiency and Support I have also been trying to clarify for myself and their difference. Currently, Efficiency seems like it has a major effect on the cost of social services, yet may also move a town towards feeling more "machine-like". Support seems more like the amount of those services that are actually required by the community and how resistant the community is to funding government at all. Smaller government as a positive idea, yet smaller safety net when things go wrong.

// Efficiency - Cost of social services / less chaotic / proficient / professional / machine-like / resistance to providing social services
// Support - Amount of services needed (social support) / less subsidies / government for less money / resistance to welfare / smaller safety net

Eventually, I would also like to implement some form of "character" or "feeling" for the town, such as "This is a spiritually industrious town" along with the ability to have town wide Social Policies that also change either Global values or change specific buildings behavior.

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Old Jan 12, 2022, 03:06 PM Local time: Jan 12, 2022, 03:06 PM #11 of 13
Over the last week or so I've been working on doing game performance testing and profiling since I found that once I reached a certain threshold of building placement I was beginning to experience significant slowdown in rendering and object movement. Very obvious calculation lag. To address the issue I looked over some profiling code examples and then wrote my own to address my game's specific issues.

The concept itself is relatively simple, just a singleton class that calls static methods within other methods so that it can record their progress.

// GameProfiler.start( "SimcityView_gameUpdateTask" );
// GameProfiler.stop( "SimcityView_gameUpdateTask" );

Then when the program closes or pauses a simple:

// GameProfiler.printCSVFile();

To follow the progress of each of the methods it records:

start Time
stop Time
total Time
minimum Time
maximum Time
average Time
call Count
current Number of Buildings
times For the Current Building Count (List)
average Time By Building Count (Time / Building Count List)
call Count By Building Count (Calls / Building Count List)

Once they're printed out as CSV data files, then they can fairly easily be loaded into a program like Excel for viewing. Example of Average Time Spent on Each Method below:



Couple things that were very noticeable and needed addressing were the erratic behavior of updates and the updatelist itself and also the extremely rapid growth in complexity of calculations for population change.

Looking at them other ways to see what the issues might be, also then calculated properties like Number of Calls / GameUpdate since GameUpdates were such an issue and there might be specific functions / methods that were causing the constriction:



Finally, also explored looking at the total Time Spent on Each Method / GameUpdate to check whether low Call volume methods might still be computationally expensive. This is a rather simplified set of charts for example purposes, yet at times was plotting 20 or 30 different methods to check for specific behavior issues. Initially, replacing textures or portions of textures was actually one of the worst offenders and had to be addressed immediately. Without fixing that function it was challenging to move beyond 100 buildings without hitting immediate slowdown. Still rather impressed a SNES could ever run Simcity calculations.



This thing is sticky, and I don't like it. I don't appreciate it.
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Old Jan 15, 2022, 06:10 PM Local time: Jan 15, 2022, 06:10 PM #12 of 13
One issue I've been dealing with lately is the length of time it takes to place any kind of connection properly on maps (roads, rails, electrical lines, water lines). Prior to recent developments, each individual segment had to be placed separately, which meant a lot of swiping back and forth for tiny tiles from menu to menu.

As of today, I have implemented bulk placement of tile regions using multi-touch gesture methods. Turns out it's rather difficult to test and debug on the phone emulator, as the multi-touch testing is really bug prone. However, with a bit of work I have managed to change all building placement to a method where either single or multiple tiles can be placed. For multiple tiles, a line is drawn between the fingers and then all of the buildings are placed simultaneously.

This was perhaps the greatest challenge, as prior work had been based on the idea that each building was already completely finalized prior to the next building appearing. With the current change, run into a lot of concurrent access types of issues, or multi-threading issues.

Both buildings want the same type of information, except each building has yet to actually modify the source of the information properly, and in some cases, rendering also tries to happen between the placement process.

First major hurdle was dealing with Android multi-touch methods, that I personally find clunky. At least on an emulator, they do not appear to trigger correctly, and each finger has a completely different action that gets called when they're raised or lowered. Means you have to check for a bunch of weird cases that are all really similar, and often repetitive.

Place first finger, place second finger, move to location, raise first finger, except for some reason first finger now counts as second finger and then first finger counts as never triggering, even when you stop touching the screen. Bleh.

Eventually got past that, then dealt with concurrent access rendering. Want to render effect of multiple contact points, except rendering and touch actions don't guarantee waiting for each other, so touch actions can modify variable while you're trying to render.

Got past that issue, and then find that multiple buildings being placed have "almost" the same issue. Each building needs the game state, except each building being placed in a group means they're all checking the state simultaneously, so it's challenging to guarantee the state will be correct before the next building checks.

You try to build a housing division, except each house in the housing division has no idea it has any neighbors nearby. Try to build a roadway segment, and the segment has no idea its part of a larger highway system. Just a segment in the middle of nowhere.

However, have finally dealt with those issues, and now have functional bulk placement of long roadways, rail lines, electrical lines, and water lines that respect terrain types and nearby buildings. Examples shown below. Left, buildings just prior to placement. Right, buildings after placement. Electrical lines cross through a road, properly link to the left side buildings, cross over the river appropriately, link to buildings on the right side, and then cross over a rail line appropriately.



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Old Jan 23, 2022, 08:22 PM Local time: Jan 23, 2022, 08:22 PM #13 of 13
The next update I've been working on is getting finances operational for the town. Implemented a basic idea for taxation and average wages fairly easily, yet after that its then turned into quite a bit of work figuring out how much a town actually pays for a lot of its social services.

To try and get a handle on this information I looked at a list of some of the larger towns in the US and then compiled statistics for the Police, Fire, and Educational departments to get a feeling for how much each of those services actually cost as of 2022 (when info is available).

The first I looked at was Police services. Basic data on the services and the different types of events they have to respond to are included below.



Next, is a summary of the costs associated with those services broken down by a variety of criteria.



In what will be a general theme for a lot of this, one surprising note was how disproportionate New York is compared to every other town. Enormous disparity in budget, and bureaucracy and apparently very different behavior in terms of crime. Notably, New York does appear to be getting its money's worth, as crime is dramatically lower.

Other things of note were the enormous disparity in call volume to actual crime in cities. In Seattle, people call 100 times for every actual crime that gets recorded. Either Seattle citizens are really needy or else Seattle does not appear to be prosecuting almost anything.

Next up are Fire statistics, basic service and calls shown below:



Afterward the same type of cost summary for the services:



One surprising part for me personally with the Fire data was how few calls are actually "fires" in many cities. The average EMS/Fire ratio in most cities was 12.5 with 14.6 variation. New York yet again being an extreme example it was 50:1. Most of being a Fire fighter ends up being responding to heart attacks and home accidents.

Other bit that was interesting was the huge range in Overhead and value for the money that some cities were getting. Some cities are paying as much as 500% overhead per fire fighter and others only 50%, yet not a dramatic improvement in Calls/Employee between them.

Finally, also looked at Education statistics, with the basic statistics shown below:



Afterward the same cost summary for Education:



Despite the variation in school districts and coverage areas there was actually much less variation in the Educational statistics. Most standard deviations were only 1/3 of the average. Notably, Education statistics are really difficult to find, and in many cases I had to use data with limited references cited or in some cases simply had to guess based on other average ratios. Finding out how many non-teacher support staff work in a school district was particularly difficult.

Student/Teacher ratios were notably consistent though at ~16 / Teacher.

One part that was surprising was the financial side of Education as the overhead seems rather extreme given the average pay that's cited for Teachers. If you count all support staff as Overhead relative to Teachers who are actually in the classroom, then the Overhead is average 400%, way above Fire and Police. If you count all the employees, then its much more reasonable at ~100%.

I was also a little surprised at how consistent the number of students per school is nationwide. ~5000 pretty much everywhere.

Next up need to figure out how to turn those into actual budget items for a town that are somewhat accurately handled. Education in particular is an issue as a lot of city budgets are only partially city funded and then get a lot from either Federal or State support.

I was speaking idiomatically.
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